From the file you posted the disk is not "native 4K", the GPT partition table is at offset 0x400 or 1024.
Thus the actual disk is definitely a 512e, but it is still entirely possible that it is "sensed" and accessed by the BIOS (or by an OS through a driver) as 4K.
I see traces of 4 (four) partitions in the GPT partition table, 1 MSR and 3 Basic Data partitions.
First partition LBA start 34 last 262177 <- this is 262144 sectors and should be 134217728 bytes in size
Second Partition LBA start 264192 last 4295231487 <- this is 4294967296 sectors and should be 2199023255552 bytes in size
Third partition LBA start 4295231488 last 5717170175 <- this is 1421938688 sectors and should be 728032608256 bytes in size
Fourth partition LBA start 5717170176 last 5860530175 <- this is 143360000 sectors and should be 73400320000 bytes in size
Summing it up, 3000590418944 seem allocated, it is probably a 3TB disk.
The size for the second partition is exactly 2^32 (2^32=4294967296) and thus it may be just beyond some limit (either in grub4dos or BIOS or both) of 32 bit math (the max number you can express in 32 bit is 2^32-1=4294967295).
You should try slightly resizing (shrink) that partition to be within the limit.
1) the .vhd image is of fixed type
2) the .vhd image file is contiguous
3) you won't ever "move" that file (or defragment that partition, etc.)
You might be able to determine the exact sector position of the image from Windows and then map that range (extents) directly with grub4dos.
It might be worth the effort for the experiment, but it is not IMHO a "safe" approach in the long term.
Anyway, see here:
the nice little tool by erwan.l should be now compatible with GPT.