I got this error 3 times last night when trying to finish 7 install. My ISO is Microsoft-issued, verified with MSDN hashes. It works fine in VMware Workstation and VirtualBox. I did check and the autochk exe is found in C:\Windows (can't remember which subfolder, if any).
I tried installing from burned disc, USB, as well as from a NTFS partition with setup files stored there (using a FAT32 USB to bootstrap into UEFI mode). I also tried mounting the ISO in my Zalman VE 400. UEFI DUET was used, which I suspect isn't the issue.
I also tried creating all my partitions on both of my drives in advance, with the first SSD target disk containing only a FAT32 EFI volume and a 2nd NTFS volume for 7.
I tried both installing from imagex and bcdboot, as well as from the official GUI setup, after deleting all partitions and the partition tables from both disks. When using the GUI, setup reaches the end just before reboot, and says that the install couldn't be completed.
Strangely enough, I got this exact same error when restoring from official Alienware recovery discs, which will only restore in BIOS/MBR mode.
This thread is basically a continuation of my previous "Windows installation repeatedly fails to complete", but because I now have a very specific error and can't determine the cause, I started this topic. I no longer suspect my RAM to be the issue, or my drives, both of whose SMART data checks out fine, and both drives being relatively new (bought in the past 120 days).
I also noticed that no pagefile.sys or hiberfil.sys is ever created during install, by either the GUI or when using ImageX.